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تاریخ عضویت: Sep 2009
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XM307 ACSW Advanced Crew-Served Weapon / automatic grenade launcher (USA)
Type: gas operated, belt fed automatic grenade launcher
Overall length: 1328 mm
Weight: 22.7 kg complete with tripod mount and sight / fire control unit
Effective range: up to 2000 m against point targets, 3600 m maximum
Rate of fire: 250 rounds per minute
The origins of the XM307 Advanced Crew Served Weapon (ACSW), also known as XM307 25mm Airbursting Weapon System, lie in the several military documents, published in USA during late 1980s. These documents stated that current small arms have reached its peak in development, and the only currently possible way to increase combat effectiveness and single-shot lethality of such weapons is do develop new guns that will fire air-bursting munitions with programmable fuses. Following these conclusions, US Army initiated development of several so-called Objective weapons; two most famous of these were XM29 Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW) and XM307 Objective Crew-Served Weapon (OCSW), currently renamed to Advanced Crew-Served Weapon (ACSW). After much development, the prime contractor for ACSW program was selected as General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products (GDATP). The development team for ACSW also includes General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems (air-bursting ammunition), Kaman Dayron Inc (programmable fuze) and Raytheon (computerized fire control system). First demonstrated in around 1999 as 25mm OCSW, at the present time (early 2006) the XM307 ACSW is on advanced stages of development, with several prototypes already tested with live ammunition, including air-bursting rounds. Initial plans called for first US Army units to be equipped with 25mm M307 ACSW weapons by 2008; M307 shall replace in service the older weapons like Mk.19 Mod.3 40mm grenade launchers and .50 caliber M2HB machine guns. For added versatility, XM307 can be easily converted to fire .50 caliber machinegun ammunition (12.7x99) with replacement of just 5 parts.
The key to greatly increased combat effectiveness of ACSW system is programmable air-bursting ammunition, which will be used in conjunction with electronic fire control unit. This ammunition will allow to precisely engage enemy personnel in open or in defilade, without the need for direct impact in the target area. Other types of ammunition proposed for XM307 ACSW are HEAT (with required armor penetration up to 5cm / 2in), less-lethal (with tear gas for peace-keeping applications) and training rounds with dummy warheads.
It is obvious that by the year 2008 the XM307 will enter into strong competition with several 40mm air-bursting weapons such as Mk.47 Striker 40, and the outcome of this competition is hardly predictable, as either system has its own merits and downsizes. ACSW is certainly lighter, fires lighter ammunition (allowing to carry more ammo in the same weight), and has longer range. 40mm weapons fire bigger warheads and can use huge stocks of already existing and well developed NATO-standard ammunition of various types, including point-detonating FRAG, HEDP, AP, less-lethal and many others.
XM307 Advanced Crew Served Weapon is gas operated, rotating bolt locked weapon that uses differential recoil system for decreased peak recoil. XM307 is belt fed weapon that fires from open bolt. The differential recoil system means that barrel and bolt group are allowed to recoil within the receiver casing together, against the recoil springs. When weapon is cocked for first shot, bolt is locked open and the entire barrel/bolt group is carried rearwards and also locked there. Upon the pull of the trigger both barrel group and the bolt inside it are released, and the bolt loads the round and locks it in chamber while barrel still moves forward; firing pin is then released immediately, and the recoil from the discharge first has to arrest the forward movement of the barrel group, and then throws it backward with less force than it would in the traditional system with fixed barrel. The belt feed and bolt cycling are operated by conventional gas action. The fire control unit includes zoomable day and night vision channels that output the sight picture to the small display at the rear of the sight. Integral laser range-finder allows for precise range measurement, necessary for automatic point of aim correction and for programming of the air-bursting fuzes. XM307 weapon is fitted with dual, ergonomically shaped spade grips with triggers and fire and sight control buttons. Additional buttons are located at the rear of the sight / fire control unit, below the eyepiece. In standard applications, XM307 can be used either on lightweight infantry tripod, or on vehicle mounts, manually or remotely controlled. For vehicular applications, GDATP will develop the dual feed option, which will allow to select the type of ammunition (anti-personnel HEAB or armour-piercing) at the instant before firing.
Mk.47 (Mark 47) Striker 40 automatic grenade launcher / machine gun (USA)
Caliber: 40x53mm High Velocity
Type: short recoil operated, belt fed automatic grenade launcher
Overall length: 940 mm
Weight: 18 kg gun body; 41 kg complete with Mk.108 tripod and AN/PWG-1 video sight
Effective range: up to 1700 meters against point targets, up to 2200 m maximum
Rate of fire: 225-300 rounds per minute
The development of the more lightweight and effective weapon which could replace venerable Mk.19 Mod.3 automatic grenade launcher in US and foreign service, has been initiated by Saco Defense Company (now General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products - GDATP) during late 1980s.First prototypes of the new weapon appeared by mid-1990s, and in 1995 US DoD approved the industry team which then consisted of Saco Defense (now GDATP) as a weapon producer and system integrator, and Raytheon as a provider of advanced electronic sighting and fire control equipment. Later on, team was joined by Norwegian NAMMO Oy company, which develops the advanced, air- bursting 40mm ammunition for new weapon. In the year of 2003, US Special Operation Command (USSOCOM) adopted the GDATP Striker 40 40mm automatic grenade launcher as Mark 47 model 0, complete with its new tripod mount and AN/PVG-1 Lightweight Video Sight developed by Raytheon. These weapons now (February 2006) are in limited service with US Special Operation forces in Afghanistan and Iraq, and also are being considered for adoption by US Marine Corps. Mk.47 grenade launchers are compatible with full spectrum on NATO-standard 40mm high velocity ammunition; advanced air-bursting ammunition with programmable fuses is being developed for this weapon. Once this ammunition will be available, the Mk.47 / Striker 40 weapon system will provide serious and more cost-effective alternative to the much-discussed 25mm XM307 ACSW weapons now in development.
Mark 47 Model 0 (mk.47 mod.0) automatic grenade launcher is short recoil operated, locked breech weapon that fires from closed bolt for improved first-shot hit probability. Weapon is air-cooled and belt fed, using standard disintegrating belts, same as Mk.19 Mod.3 launcher. Standard belts are supplied in 32 or 48 round boxes. Weapon is equipped with newly developed Mk.108 mod.0 tripod with T&E mechanisms and brake that allows to lock weapon on pre-selected target spot. The key member of the Striker 40 system is the AN/PVG-1 Lightweight Video Sight (LVS), which offers 3X magnification TV view on target, combined with laser range finder and ballistic computer; sight also has interface connectors that allow to link it to optional thermal night sighting equipment which can be installed on the weapon; once the night sight is connected, operator can select TV or thermal picture via the single button. The LVS allows to accurately measure the range to the target then aim the gun accurately for high first shot hit accuracy. LVS is installed on the right side of the weapon, and is controlled by the buttons and four-position "joystick" located at the rear of the receiver, between and above spade grips.
XM25 grenade launcher / air bursting assault weapon (USA)
Type: semiautomatic, magazine fed
Overall length: n/a
Weight: less than 5.45 kg (12 lbs) unloaded
Effective range: up to 500 m against point targets, up to 700 m against area targets
Magazine capacity: 6 rounds
The XM25 is being developed by the ATK corporation of USA, with the help of the famous German arms manufacturer Heckler und Koch. The XM25 semiautomatic grenade launcher (air bursting assault weapon in the manufacturer's terms) is a direct result of the American XM29 OICW program, which has been suspended in 2004 due to impossibility of reaching weight goals, and subsequently split up into two OICW Block 1 systems - the XM8 5.56mm modular carbine, and the XM25 25mm semiautomatic grenade launcher, along with XM104 target acquisition / fire control system (FA/FCS, also known as 'computerized sight'). It is possible that in the future the XM8, XM25 and XM104 will be again combined into single modular system. However, current plans are to produce and test XM25/XM104 system as a stand-alone weapon, which will greatly improve the firepower of every infantry squad. The 25mm HEAB (High Explosive Air Burst) programmable ammunition will have at least three times longer effective range against point target, when compared with current 40mm systems such as M203 single-shot or Milkor Mk.1 multi-shot grenade launchers. It also will improve lethality and hit probability thanks to the rage-finding day/night sight, combined with ballistic computer, which will automatically pre-set the aiming reticle in the sight for measured range and program the 25mm grenades to explode in air exactly over or next to the target. The point-detonating capability also will be retained for back-up or anti-vehicle operations. The 25mm ammunition, used in XM25, will share the HEAB warheads with the 25mm crew-served XM307 OCSW weapon, but the cartridge will be shorter, to provide slower velocity and less recoil. XM25 also will be provided with other than HEAB ammunition options, such as FAE/thermobaric and HEAT (armor piercing, with penetration up to 50mm/2inch of RHA) point-detonating warheads for anti-personnel and anti-vehicle use, as well as canister flechette rounds (loaded with multiple steel darts for close combat). Training and less-lethal ammunition also is planned for XM25.
As the XM25 is a stand-alone weapon, its operator (grenadier) will have to carry an additional personal defense weapon, such as pistol or a carbine. Current plans are to issue about two XM25 weapons to infantry squad. It also must be noted that XM25 will not replace neither M249 SAW / light machine guns, nor the 40mm underbarrel grenade launchers (current issue M203 or proposed XM320 single shot add-on shot weapons).
The XM25 is a gas operated, rotating bolt, semiautomatic weapon. It is designed using bullpup layout, with the magazine and bolt located in the buttstock. The weapon housing is made from impact-resistant polymer. The ejection windows for spent cartridge cases are located on both sides of weapon; at any moment, however, only one ejection window is used, the other being closed by the integral dust cover. This, along with ambidextrous controls, allows the operator to fire XM25 from either shoulder, as required. The top of the weapon is fitted with the rail and electronic interface, and will accept XM104 TA/FCS sight unit. The interface is required to provide range information for programming unit, which sets up the grenade airburst fuse at the instant of firing. The XM104 sighting unit is battery-operated, but, shall it fail due to battery run-out or damage, the XM25 could still be used as a direct-fire weapon with the grenades automatically set to point-impact detonation mode. The additional fire mode, rangefinding and sight control buttons are located at the front of the enlarged triggerguard. XM25 uses detachable, single stack magazines, which hold 6 rounds.
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تاریخ عضویت: Apr 2009
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